Stories In Logosphere

As championed by a brave writer, should we see the Web as a crib for born again narratives, or as a crypt for redundant texts.

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Crib or Crypt (Melik Ohanian)

Once Upon A Time

Borrowing from Einstein, “the only reason for time is so that everything doesn’t happen at once.” That befits narratives: whatever the tale or the way it is conveyed, stories take time. Even if nothing happens, a story must be spelt in tempo and can only be listened to or read one step at a time.

In So Many Words

Stories have been told before being written, which is why their fabric is made of words, and their motifs weaved by natural languages. So, even if illustrations may adorn printed narratives, the magic of stories comes from the music of their words.

A Will To Believe

To enjoy a story, listeners or readers are to detach their mind from what they believe about reality, replacing dependable and well-worn representations with new and untested ones, however shaky or preposterous they may be; and that has to be done through an act of will.

Stories are make-beliefs: as with art in general, their magic depends on the suspension of disbelief. But suspension is not abolition; while deeply submerged in stories, listeners and readers maintain some inward track to the beliefs they left before diving; wandering a cognitive fold between surface truths and submarine untruths, they seem to rely on a secure if invisible tether to the reality they know. On that account, the possibility of an alternative reality is to transform a comforting fold into a menacing abyss, dissolving their lifeline to beliefs. That could happen to stories told through the web.

Stories & Medium

Assuming time rendering, stories were not supposed to be affected by medium; that is, until McLuhan’s suggestion of medium taking over messages. Half a century later internet and the Web are bringing that foreboding in earnest by melting texts into multimedia documents.

Tweets and Short Message Services (SMS) offer a perfect illustration of the fading of text-driven communication, evolving from concise (160 characters) text-messaging  to video-sharing.

That didn’t happen by chance but reflects the intrinsic visual nature of web contents, with dire consequence for texts: once lording it over entourages of media, they are being overthrown and reduced to simple attachments, just a peg above fac-simile. But then, demoting texts to strings of characters makes natural languages redundant, to be replaced by a web Esperanto.

Web Semantic Silos

With medium taking over messages, and texts downgraded to attachments, natural languages may lose their primacy for stories conveyed through the web, soon to be replaced by the so-called “semantic web”, supposedly a lingua franca encompassing the whole of internet contents.

As epitomized by the Web Ontology Language (OWL), the semantic web is based on a representation scheme made of two kinds of nodes respectively for concepts (squares) and conceptual relations (circles).

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Semantic graphs (aka conceptual networks) combine knowledge representation (blue, left) and domain specific semantics (green, center & right)

Concept nodes are meant to represent categories specific to domains (green, right); that tallies with the lexical level of natural languages.

Connection nodes are used to define two types of associations:

  • Semantically neutral constructs to be applied uniformly across domains; that tallies with the syntactic level of natural languages (blue, left).
  • Domain specific relationships between concepts; that tallies with the semantic level of natural languages (green, center).

The mingle of generic (syntactic) and specific (semantic) connectors induces a redundant complexity which grows exponentially when different domains are to be combined, due to overlapping semantics. Natural languages typically use pragmatics to deal with the issue, but since pragmatics scale poorly with exponential complexity, they are of limited use for semantic web; that confines its effectiveness to silos of domain specific knowledge.

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Natural Language Pragmatics As Bridges Across Domain Specific Silos

But semantic silos are probably not the best nurturing ground for stories.

Stories In Cobwebs

Taking for granted that text, time, and suspension of disbelief are the pillars of stories, their future on the web looks gloomy:

  • Texts have no status of their own on the web, but only appear as part of documents, a media among others.
  • Stories can bypass web practice by being retrieved before being read as texts or viewed as movies; but whenever they are “browsed” their intrinsic time-frame and tempo are shattered, and so is their music.
  • If lying can be seen as an inborn human cognitive ability, it cannot be separated from its role in direct social communication; such interactive background should also account for the transient beliefs in fictional stories. But lies detached from a live context and planted on the web are different beasts, standing on their own and bereft of any truth currency that could separate actual lies from fictional ones.

That depressing perspective is borne out by the tools supposed to give a new edge to text processing:

Hyper-links are part and parcel of internet original text processing. But as far and long as stories go, introducing links (hardwired or generated) is to hand narrative threads over to readers, and by so transforming them into “entertextment” consumers.

Machine learning can do wonders mining explicit and implicit meanings from the whole of past and present written and even spoken discourses. But digging stories out is more about anthropology or literary criticism than about creative writing.

As for the semantic web, it may work as a cobweb: by getting rid of pragmatics, deliberately or otherwise, it disables narratives by disengaging them from their contexts, cutting them out in one stroke from their original meaning, tempo, and social currency.

The Deconstruction of Stories

Curiously, what the web may do to stories seems to reenact a philosophical project which gained some favor in Europe during the second half of the last century. To begin with, the  deconstruction  philosophy was rooted in literary criticism, and its objective was to break the apparent homogeneity of narratives in order to examine the political, social, or ideological factors at play behind. Soon enough, a core of upholders took aim at broader philosophical ambitions, using deconstruction to deny even the possibility of a truth currency.

With the hindsight on initial and ultimate purposes of the deconstruction project, the web and its semantic cobweb may be seen as the stories nemesis.

Further Reading

External Links

Boost Your Mind Mapping

Preamble

Turning thoughts into figures faces the intrinsic constraint of dimension: two dimensional representations cannot cope with complexity.

van der Straet, Jan, 1523-1605; A Natural Philosopher in His Study
Making his mind about knowledge dimensions: actual world, descriptions, and reproductions (Jan van der Straet)

So, lest they be limited to flat and shallow thinking, mind cartographers have to introduce the cognitive equivalent of geographical layers (nature, demography, communications, economy,…), and archetypes (mountains, rivers, cities, monuments, …)

Nodes: What’s The Map About

Nodes in maps (aka roots, handles, …) are meant to anchor thinking threads. Given that human thinking is based on the processing of symbolic representations, mind mapping is expected to progress wide and deep into the nature of nodes: concepts, topics, actual objects and phenomena, artifacts, partitions, or just terms.

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What’s The Map About

It must be noted that these archetypes are introduced to characterize symbolic representations independently of domain semantics.

Connectors: Cognitive Primitives

Nodes in maps can then be connected as children or siblings, the implicit distinction being some kind of refinement for the former, some kind of equivalence for the latter. While such a semantic latitude is clearly a key factor of creativity, it is also behind the poor scaling of maps with complexity.

A way to frame complexity without thwarting creativity would be to define connectors with regard to cognitive primitives, independently of nodes’ semantics:

  • References connect nodes as terms.
  • Associations: connect nodes with regard to their structural, functional, or temporal proximity.
  • Analogies: connect nodes with regard to their structural or functional similarities.

At first, with shallow nodes defined as terms, connections can remain generic; then, with deeper semantic levels introduced, connectors could be refined accordingly for concepts, documentation, actual objects and phenomena, artifacts,…

Mindmap11
Connectors are aligned with basic cognitive mechanisms of metonymy (associations) and analogy (similarities)

Semantics: Extensional vs Intensional

Given mapping primitives defined independently of domains semantics, the next step is to take into account mapping purposes:

  • Extensional semantics deal with categories of actual instances of objects or phenomena.
  • Intensional semantics deal with specifications of objects or phenomena.

That distinction can be applied to basic semantic archetypes (people, roles, events, …) and used to distinguish actual contexts, symbolic representations, and specifications, e.g:

Mindmap20xi
Extensions (full border) are about categories of instances, intensions (dashed border) are about specifications
  • Car (object) refers to context, not to be confused with Car (surrogate) which specified the symbolic counterpart: the former is extensional (actual instances), the latter intensional (symbolic representations)
  • Maintenance Process is extensional (identified phenomena), Operation is intensional (specifications).
  • Reservation and Driver are symbolic representations (intensional), Person is extensional (identified instances).

It must be reminded that whereas the choice is discretionary and contingent on semantic contexts and modeling purposes (‘as-it-is’ vs ‘as-it-should-be’), consequences are not because the choice is to determine abstraction semantics.

For example, the records for cars, drivers, and reservations are deemed intensional because they are defined by business concerns. Alternatively, instances of persons and companies are defined by contexts and therefore dealt with as extensional descriptions.

Abstractions: Subsets & Sub-types

Thinking can be characterized as a balancing act between making distinctions and managing the ensuing complexity. To that end, human edge over other animal species is the use of symbolic representations for specialization and generalization.

That critical mechanism of human thinking is often overlooked by mind maps due to a confused understanding of inheritance semantics:

  • Strong inheritance deals with instances: specialization define subsets and generalization is defined by shared structures and identities.
  • Weak inheritance deals with specifications: specialization define sub-types and generalization is defined by shared features.
Mindmap30
Inheritance semantics: shared structures (dark) vs shared features (white)

The combination of nodes (intension/extension) and inheritance (structures/features) semantics gives cartographers two hands: a free one for creative distinctions, and a safe one for the ensuing complexity. e.g:

  • Intension and weak inheritance: environments (extension) are partitioned according to regulatory constraints (intension); specialization deals with subtypes and generalization is defined by shared features.
  • Extension and strong inheritance: cars (extension) are grouped according to motorization; specialization deals with subsets and generalization is defined by shared structures and identities.
  • Intension and strong inheritance: corporate sub-type inherits the identification features of type Reservation (intension).

Mind maps built on these principles could provide a common thesaurus encompassing the whole of enterprise data, information and knowledge.

Intelligence: Data, Information, Knowledge

Considering that mind maps combine intelligence and cartography, they may have some use for enterprise architects, in particular with regard to economic intelligence, i.e the integration of information processing, from data mining to knowledge management and decision-making:

  • Data provide the raw input, without clear structures or semantics (terms or aspects).
  • Categories are used to process data into information on one hand (extensional nodes), design production systems on the other hand (intensional nodes).
  • Abstractions (concepts) makes knowledge from information by putting it to use.

Conclusion

Along that perspective mind maps could serve as front-ends for enterprise architecture ontologies, offering a layered cartography that could be organized according to concerns:

Enterprise architects would look at physical environments, business processes, and functional and technical systems architectures.

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Using layered maps to visualize enterprise architectures

Knowledge managers would take a different perspective and organize the maps according to the nature and source of data, information, and knowledge.intelligence w

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Using layered maps to build economic intelligence

As demonstrated by geographic information systems, maps built on clear semantics can be combined to serve a wide range of purposes; furthering the analogy with geolocation assistants, layered mind maps could be annotated with punctuation marks (e.g ?, !, …) in order to support problem-solving and decision-making.

Further Reading

External Links

A Brief Ontology Of Time

“Clocks slay time… time is dead as long as it is being clicked off by little wheels; only when the clock stops does time come to life.”

William Faulkner

Preamble

The melting of digital fences between enterprises and business environments is putting a new light on the way time has to be taken into account.

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Time is what happens between events (Josef Koudelka)

The shift can be illustrated by the EU GDPR: by introducing legal constraints on the notifications of changes in personal data, regulators put systems’ internal events on the same standing as external ones and make all time-scales equal whatever their nature.

Ontological Limit of WC3 Time Recommendation

The W3C recommendation for OWL time description is built on the well accepted understanding of temporal entity, duration, and position:

Cake_time

While there isn’t much to argue with what is suggested, the puzzle comes from what is missing, namely the modalities of time: the recommendation makes use of calendars and time-stamps but ignores what is behind, i.e time ontological dimensions.

Out of the Box

As already expounded (Ontologies & Enterprise Architecture) ontologies are at their best when a distinction can be maintained between representation and semantics. That point can be illustrated here by adding an ontological dimension to the W3C description of time:

  1. Ontological modalities are introduced by identifying (#) temporal positions with regard to a time-frame.
  2. Time-frames are open-ended temporal entities identified (#) by events.
Cake_timeOnto
How to add ontological modalities to time

It must be noted that initial truth-preserving properties still apply across ontological modalities.

Conclusion: OWL Descriptions Should Not Be Confused With Ontologies

Languages are meant to combine two primary purposes: communication and symbolic representation, some (e.g natural, programming) being focused on the former, other (e.g formal, specific) on the latter.

The distinction is somewhat blurred with languages like OWL (Web Ontology Language) due to the versatility and plasticity of semantic networks.

Ontologies and profiles are meant to target domains, profiles and domains are modeled with languages, including OWL.

That apparent proficiency may induce some confusion between languages and ontologies, the former dealing with the encoding of time representations, the latter with time modalities.

Further Readings

External Links

Collaborative Systems Engineering: From Models to Ontologies

Given the digitization of enterprises environments, engineering processes have to be entwined with business ones while kept in sync with enterprise architectures. That calls for new threads of collaboration taking into account the integration of business and engineering processes as well as the extension to business environments.

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Collaboration can be personal and direct, or collective and mediated (Wang Qingsong)

Whereas models are meant to support communication, traditional approaches are already straining when used beyond software generation, that is collaboration between humans and CASE tools. Ontologies, which can be seen as a higher form of models, could enable a qualitative leap for systems collaborative engineering at enterprise level.

Systems Engineering: Contexts & Concerns

To begin with contents, collaborations should be defined along three axes:

  1. Requirements: business objectives, enterprise organization, and processes, with regard to systems functionalities.
  2. Feasibility: business requirements with regard to architectures capabilities.
  3. Architectures: supporting functionalities with regard to architecture capabilities.
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Engineering Collaborations at Enterprise Level

Since these axes are usually governed by different organizational structures and set along different time-frames, collaborations must be supported by documentation, especially models.

Shared Models

In order to support collaborations across organizational units and time-frames, models have to bring together perspectives which are by nature orthogonal:

  • Contexts, concerns, and languages: business vs engineering.
  • Time-frames and life-cycle: business opportunities vs architecture stability.
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Harnessing MBSE to EA

That could be achieved if engineering models could be harnessed to enterprise ones for contexts and concerns. That is to be achieved through the integration of processes.

 Processes Integration

As already noted, the integration of business and engineering processes is becoming a key success factor.

Processes integration

For that purpose collaborations would have to take into account the different time-frames governing changes in business processes (driven by business value) and engineering ones (governed by assets life-cycles):

  • Business requirements engineering is synchronic: changes must be kept in line with architectures capabilities (full line).
  • Software engineering is diachronic: developments can be carried out along their own time-frame (dashed line).
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Synchronic (full) vs diachronic (dashed) processes.

Application-driven projects usually focus on users’ value and just-in-time delivery; that can be best achieved with personal collaboration within teams. Architecture-driven projects usually affect assets and non-functional features and therefore collaboration between organizational units.

Collaboration: Direct or Mediated

Collaboration can be achieved directly or through some mediation, the former being a default option for applications, the latter a necessary one for architectures.

Cycles_collabs00

Both can be defined according to basic cognitive and organizational mechanisms and supported by a mix of physical and virtual spaces to be dynamically redefined depending on activities, projects, locations, and organisation.

Direct collaborations are carried out between individuals with or without documentation:

  • Immediate and personal: direct collaboration between 5 to 15 participants with shared objectives and responsibilities. That would correspond to agile project teams (a).
  • Delayed and personal: direct collaboration across teams with shared knowledge but with different objectives and responsibilities. That would tally with social networks circles (c).
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Collaborations

Mediated collaborations are carried out between organizational units through unspecified individual members, hence the need of documentation, models or otherwise:

  • Direct and Code generation from platform or domain specific models (b).
  • Model transformation across architecture layers and business domains (d)

Depending on scope and mediation, three basic types of collaboration can be defined for applications, architecture, and business intelligence projects.

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Projects & Collaborations

As it happens, collaboration archetypes can be associated with these profiles.

Collaboration Mechanisms

Agile development model (under various guises) is the option of choice whenever shared ownership and continuous delivery are possible. Application projects can so be carried out autonomously, with collaborations circumscribed to team members and relying on the backlog mechanism.

The OODA (Observation, Orientation, Decision, Action) loop (and avatars) can epitomize projects combining operations, data analytics, and decision-making.

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Collaboration archetypes

Projects set across enterprise architectures cannot be carried out without taking into account phasing constraints. While ill-fated Waterfall methods have demonstrated the pitfalls of procedural solutions, phasing constraints can be dealt with a roundabout mechanism combining iterative and declarative schemes.

Engineering vs Business Driven Collaborations

With collaborative engineering upgraded at enterprise level, the main challenge is to iron out frictions between application and architecture projects and ensure the continuity, consistency and effectiveness of enterprise activities. That can be achieved with roundabouts used as a collaboration mechanism between projects, whatever their nature:

  • Shared models are managed at roundabout level.
  • Phasing dependencies are set in terms of assertions on shared models.
  • Depending on constraints projects are carried out directly (1,3) or enter roundabouts (2), with exits conditioned by the availability of models.
Engineering driven collaboration: roundabout and backlogs

Moreover, with engineering embedded in business processes, collaborations must also bring together operational analytics, decision-making, and business intelligence. Here again, shared models are to play a critical role:

  • Enterprise descriptive and prescriptive models for information maps and objectives
  • Environment predictive models for data and business understanding.
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Business driven collaboration: operations and business intelligence

Whereas both engineering and business driven collaborations depend on sharing information  and knowledge, the latter have to deal with open and heterogeneous semantics. As a consequence, collaborations must be supported by shared representations and proficient communication languages.

Ontologies & Representations

Ontologies are best understood as models’ backbones, to be fleshed out or detailed according to context and objectives, e.g:

  • Thesaurus, with a focus on terms and documents.
  • Systems modeling,  with a focus on integration, e.g Zachman Framework.
  • Classifications, with a focus on range, e.g Dewey Decimal System.
  • Meta-models, with a focus on model based engineering, e.g models transformation.
  • Conceptual models, with a focus on understanding, e.g legislation.
  • Knowledge management, with a focus on reasoning, e.g semantic web.

As such they can provide the pillars supporting the representation of the whole range of enterprise concerns:

KM_OntosCapabs

Taking a leaf from Zachman’s matrix, ontologies can also be used to differentiate concerns with regard to architecture layers: enterprise, systems, platforms.

Last but not least, ontologies can be profiled with regard to the nature of external contexts, e.g:

  • Institutional: Regulatory authority, steady, changes subject to established procedures.
  • Professional: Agreed upon between parties, steady, changes subject to established procedures.
  • Corporate: Defined by enterprises, changes subject to internal decision-making.
  • Social: Defined by usage, volatile, continuous and informal changes.
  • Personal: Customary, defined by named individuals (e.g research paper).
Cross profiles: capabilities, enterprise architectures, and contexts.

Ontologies & Communication

If collaborations have to cover engineering as well as business descriptions, communication channels and interfaces will have to combine the homogeneous and well-defined syntax and semantics of the former with the heterogeneous and ambiguous ones of the latter.

With ontologies represented as RDF (Resource Description Framework) graphs, the first step would be to sort out truth-preserving syntax (applied independently of domains) from domain specific semantics.

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RDF graphs (top) support formal (bottom left) and domain specific (bottom right) semantics.

On that basis it would be possible to separate representation syntax from contents semantics, and to design communication channels and interfaces accordingly.

That would greatly facilitate collaborations across externally defined ontologies as well as their mapping to enterprise architecture models.

Conclusion

To summarize, the benefits of ontological frames for collaborative engineering can be articulated around four points:

  1. A clear-cut distinction between representation semantics and truth-preserving syntax.
  2. A common functional architecture for all users interfaces, humans or otherwise.
  3. Modular functionalities for specific semantics on one hand, generic truth-preserving and cognitive operations on the other hand.
  4. Profiled ontologies according to concerns and contexts.
KM_OntosCollabs
Clear-cut distinction (1), unified interfaces architecture (2), functional alignment (3), crossed profiles (4).

A critical fifth benefit could be added with regard to business intelligence: combined with deep learning capabilities, ontologies would extend the scope of collaboration to explicit as well as implicit knowledge, the former already framed by languages, the latter still open to interpretation and discovery.

Further Reading

 

Economic Intelligence & Semantic Galaxies

Given the number and verbosity of alternative definitions pertaining to enterprise and systems architectures, common sense would suggest circumspection if not agnosticism. Instead, fierce wars are endlessly waged for semantic positions built on sand hills bound to crumble under the feet of whoever tries to stand defending them.

Nature & Nurture (Wang Xingwei)

Such doomed attempts appear to be driven by a delusion seeing concepts as frozen celestial bodies; fortunately, simple-minded catalogs of unyielding definitions are progressively pushed aside by the will to understand (and milk) the new complexity of business environments.

Business Intelligence: Mapping Semantics to Circumstances

As long as information systems could be kept behind Chinese walls semantic autarky was of limited consequences. But with enterprises’ gates collapsing under digital flows, competitive edges increasingly depend on open and creative business intelligence (BI), in particular:

  • Data understanding: giving form and semantics to massive and continuous inflows of raw observations.
  • Business understanding: aligning data understanding with business objectives and processes.
  • Modeling: consolidating data and business understandings into descriptive, predictive, or operational models.
  • Evaluation: assessing and improving accuracy and effectiveness of understandings with regard to business and decision-making processes.
BI: Mapping Semantics to Circumstances

Since BI has to take into account the continuity of enterprise’s objectives and assets, the challenge is to dynamically adjust the semantics of external (business environments) and internal (objects and processes) descriptions. That could be explained in terms of gravitational semantics.

Semantic Galaxies

Assuming concepts are understood as stars wheeling across unbounded and expanding galaxies, semantics could be defined by gravitational forces and proximity between:

  • Intensional concepts (stars) bearing necessary meaning set independently of context or purpose.
  • Extensional concepts (planets) orbiting intensional ones. While their semantics is aligned with a single intensional concept, they bear enough of their gravity to create a semantic environment.

On that account semantic domains would be associated to stars and their planets, with galaxies regrouping stars (concepts) and systems (domains) bound by gravitational forces (semantics).

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Conceptual Stars & Planets

Semantic Dimensions & the Morphing of Concepts

While systems don’t leave much, if any, room for semantic wanderings, human languages are as good as they can be pliant, plastic, and versatile. Hence the need for business intelligence to span the stretch between open and fuzzy human semantics and systems straight-jacketed modeling languages.

That can be done by framing the morphing of concepts along Zachman’s architecture description: intensional concepts being detached of specific contexts and concerns are best understood as semantic roots able to breed multi-faceted extensions, to be eventually coerced into system specifications.

Galax_Dims
Framing concepts metamorphosis along Zachman’s architecture dimensions

Managing The Alignment of Planets

As stars, concepts can be apprehended through a mix of reason and perception:

  • Figured out from a conceptual void waiting to be filled.
  • Fortuitously discovered in the course of an argument.

The benefit in both cases would be to delay verbal definitions and so to avoid preempted or biased understandings: as for the Schrödinger’s cat, trying to lock up meanings with bare words often breaks their semantic integrity, shattering scraps in every direction.

In contrast, semantic orbits and alignments open the door to the dynamic management of overlapping definitions across conceptual galaxies. As it happens, that new paradigm could be a game changer for enterprise architecture and knowledge management.

From Business To Economic Intelligence

Traditional approaches to information systems and knowledge management are made obsolete by the combination of digital environments, big data, and the spreading of artificial brains with deep learning abilities.

To cope with these changes enterprises have to better integrate business intelligence with information systems, and that cannot be achieved without redefining the semantic and functional dimensions of enterprise architectures.

Semantic dimensions deal with contexts and domains of concerns: statutory, business, organization, engineering. Since these dimensions are by nature different, their alignment has to be managed; that can be achieved with conceptual galaxies and profiled ontologies.

Functional dimensions are to form the backbone of enterprise architectures, their primary purpose being the integration of data analytics, information processing, and decision-making. That approach, often labelled as economic intelligence, defines data, information, and knowledge, respectively as resources, assets, and service:

  1. Resources: data is captured through continuous and heterogeneous flows from a wide range of sources.
  2. Assets: information is built by adding identity, structure, and semantics to data.
  3. Services: knowledge is information put to use through decision-making.
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Economic Intelligence: Bringing data mining, information processing, and knowledge management into a single conceptual framework

An ontological kernel has been developed as a Proof of Concept using Protégé/OWL 2; a beta version is available for comments on the Stanford/Protégé portal with the link: Caminao Ontological Kernel (CaKe).

Examples

Data

Wikipedia: Any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation; requires interpretation to become information.

Merriam-Webster: Factual information such as measurements or statistics; information in digital form that can be transmitted or processed; information and noise from a sensing device or organ that must be processed to be meaningful.

Cambridge Dictionary: Information, especially facts or numbers; information in an electronic form that can be stored and used by a computer.

Collins: Information that can be stored and used by a computer program.

TOGAF: Basic unit of information having a meaning and that may have subcategories (data items) of distinct units and values.

Galax_DataInfo

System

Wikipedia: A regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole; Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning.

Merriam-Webster: A regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole

Business Dictionary: A set of detailed methods, procedures and routines created to carry out a specific activity, perform a duty, or solve a problem; organized, purposeful structure that consists of interrelated and interdependent elements.

Cambridge Dictionary: A set of connected things or devices that operate together

Collins Dictionary: A way of working, organizing, or doing something which follows a fixed plan or set of rules; a set of things / rules.

TOGAF: A collection of components organized to accomplish a specific function or set of functions (from ISO/IEC 42010:2007).

Further Reading

External Links

Open Ontologies: From Silos to Architectures

To be of any use for enterprises, ontologies have to embrace a wide range of contexts and concerns, often ill-defined for environments, rather well expounded for systems.

Circumscribed Contexts & Crossed Concerns (Robert Goben)

And now that enterprises have to compete in open, digitized, and networked environments, business and systems ontologies have to be combined into modular knowledge architectures.

Ontologies & Contexts

If open-ended business contexts and concerns are to be taken into account, the first step should be to characterize ontologies with regard to their source, justification, and the stability of their categories, e.g:

  • Institutional: Regulatory authority, steady, changes subject to established procedures.
  • Professional: Agreed upon between parties, steady, changes subject to accords.
  • Corporate: Defined by enterprises, changes subject to internal decision-making.
  • Social: Defined by usage, volatile, continuous and informal changes.
  • Personal: Customary, defined by named individuals (e.g research paper).

Assuming such an external taxonomy, the next step would be to see what kind of internal (i.e enterprise architecture) ontologies can be fitted into, as it’s the case for the Zachman framework.

The Zachman’s taxonomy is built on well established concepts (Who,What,How, Where, When) applied across architecture layers for enterprise (business and organization), systems (logical structures and functionalities), and platforms (technologies). These layers can be generalized and applied uniformly across external contexts, from well-defined (e.g regulations) to fuzzy (e.g business prospects or new technologies) ones, e.g:

Ontologies, capabilities (Who,What,How, Where, When), and architectures (enterprise, systems, platforms).

That “divide to conquer” strategy is to serve two purposes:

  • By bridging the gap between internal and external taxonomies it significantly enhances the transparency of governance and decision-making.
  • By applying the same motif (Who,What, How, Where, When) across the semantics of contexts, it opens the door to a seamless integration of all kinds of knowledge: enterprise, professional, institutional, scientific, etc.

As can be illustrated using Zachman concepts, the benefits are straightforward at enterprise architecture level (e.g procurement), due to the clarity of supporting ontologies; not so for external ones, which are by nature open and overlapping and often come with blurred semantics.

Ontologies & Concerns

A broad survey of RDF-based ontologies demonstrates how semantic overlaps and folds can be sort out using built-in differentiation between domains’ semantics on one hand, structure and processing of symbolic representations on the other hand. But such schemes are proprietary, and evidence shows their lines seldom tally, with dire consequences for interoperability: even without taking into account relationships and integrity constraints, weaving together ontologies from different sources is to be cumbersome, the costs substantial, and the outcome often reduced to a muddy maze of ambiguous semantics.

The challenge would be to generalize the principles as to set a basis for open ontologies.

Assuming that a clear line can be drawn between representation and contents semantics, with standard constructs (e.g predicate logic) used for the former, the objective would be to classify ontologies with regard to their purpose, independently of their representation.

The governance-driven taxonomy introduced above deals with contexts and consequently with coarse-grained modularity. It should be complemented by a fine-grained one to be driven by concerns, more precisely by the epistemic nature of the individual instances to be denoted. As it happens, that could also tally with the Zachman’s taxonomy:

  • Thesaurus: ontologies covering terms and concepts.
  • Documents: ontologies covering documents with regard to topics.
  • Business: ontologies of relevant enterprise organization and business objects and activities.
  • Engineering: symbolic representation of organization and business objects and activities.
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Ontologies: Purposes & Targets

Enterprises could then pick and combine templates according to domains of concern and governance. Taking an on-line insurance business for example, enterprise knowledge architecture would have to include:

  • Medical thesaurus and consolidated regulations (Knowledge).
  • Principles and resources associated to the web-platform (Engineering).
  • Description of products (e.g vehicles) and services (e.g insurance plans) from partners (Business).

Such designs of ontologies according to the governance of contexts and the nature of concerns would significantly reduce blanket overlaps and improve the modularity and transparency of ontologies.

On a broader perspective, that policy will help to align knowledge management with EA governance by setting apart ontologies defined externally (e.g regulations), from the ones set through decision-making, strategic (e.g plate-form) or tactical (e.g partnerships).

Open Ontologies’ Benefits

Benefits from open and formatted ontologies built along an explicit distinction between the semantics of representation (aka ontology syntax) and the semantics of context can be directly identified for:

Modularity: the knowledge basis of enterprise architectures could be continuously tailored to changes in markets and corporate structures without impairing enterprise performances.

Integration: the design of ontologies with regard to the nature of targets and stability of categories could enable built-in alignment mechanisms between knowledge architectures and contexts.

Interoperability: limited overlaps and finer granularity are to greatly reduce frictions when ontologies bearing out business processes are to be combined or extended.

Reliability: formatted ontologies can be compared to typed programming languages with regard to transparency, internal consistency, and external validity.

Last but not least, such reasoned design of ontologies may open new perspectives for the collaboration between cognitive humans and pretending ones.

Further Reading

External Links

Transcription & Deep Learning

Humans looking for reassurance against the encroachment of artificial brains should try YouTube subtitles: whatever Google’s track record in natural language processing, the way its automated scribe writes down what is said in the movies is essentially useless.

A blank sheet of paper was copied on a Xerox machine.
This copy was used to make a second copy.
The second to make a third one, and so on…
Each copy as it came out of the machine was re-used to make the next.
This was continued for one hundred times, producing a book of one hundred pages. (Ian Burn)

Experience directly points to the probable cause of failure: the usefulness of real-time transcriptions is not a linear function of accuracy because every slip can be fatal, without backup or second chance. It’s like walking a line: for all practical purposes a single misunderstanding can throw away the thread of understanding, without a chance of retrieve or reprieve.

Contrary to Turing machines, listeners have no finite states; and contrary to the sequence of symbols on tapes, tales are told by weaving together semantic threads. It ensues that stories are work in progress: readers can pause to review and consolidate meanings, but listeners have no other choice than punting on what comes to they mind, hopping that the fabric of the story will carry them out.

So, whereas automated scribes can deep learn from written texts and recorded conversations, there is no way to do the same from what listeners understand. That’s the beauty of story telling: words may be written but meanings are renewed each time the words are heard.

Further Reading